Archives for December 2013

Reading – a Neglected Art (Volume 3 – Issue 6)

Author: Mrs V RADHIKA


‘Reading Maketh a Perfect Man’, says Bacon.

Learning is a complex activity and a continuous process. In the process reading is one of the important skills. It is a complex communicative skill. It involves understanding the sound pattern. To get fluency in reading, there are two major approaches known as intensive reading and extensive reading. But in this new technological world reading skill gets deteriorating. This article encounters the reasons for deterioration of reading skill and suggests some ways to improve it.

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On the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Teachers’ Self-efficacy in High School and University Contexts (Volume 3 – Issue 6)



The current study attempts to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and EFL instructors’ self-efficacy at the high school and university level. To this end, 102 instructors from local universities and high schools located in East and West Azarbaijan, Iran were selected as a sample of this research. In order to collect the necessary data, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (the EQ-i) and Bandura’s Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale were used. Results suggest that there is a significant relationship between teachers’ emotional intelligence and their self-efficacy beliefs. The study concludes that it is necessary to both highlight the necessity of emotional intelligence and focus more attention on the role of it in EFL contexts.

Key words: Emotional intelligence, selfefficacy, university instructors, EFL contexts.

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Differential Effectiveness of Corrective Feedback Techniques on the Development of Advanced Iranian EFL Learners’ Grammar Ability

Authors: GHOLAM-REZA ABBASIAN1, PARYA PARSARAD (corresponding) 2

This study was an attempt to give answer to some questions concerning finding the most effective ways to present feedback to advance level EFL learners’ grammatical errors in writing by comparing the impact of self-correction based written corrective feedback techniques and teacher-correction based ones on the development of learners’ grammar ability. To this end, a group of 62 female learners from a private English Institute and 41 both female and male learners from South Tehran Branch of Islamic Azad University were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: the first one received feedback on their writings through self-correction based written corrective feedback techniques but the second group was given teacher-correction based written corrective feedback through some techniques for their grammar errors. The learners given self-correction based written corrective feedback were supposed to self-correct their errors in the class after receiving their writing papers and in the case of not understanding the correct forms, with the help of their instructor, teacher or the researcher. The results indicated that self-correction based written corrective feedback and teacher-correction based written corrective feedback did not significantly affect the advanced EFL learners’ grammar ability development differently. However, the learners themselves perceived the self-correction based written corrective feedback techniques more effective and helpful in improving grammar ability.

Keywords: corrective feedback (CF), self-correction based written corrective feedback techniques, teacher-correction based written corrective feedback techniques

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The Effect of Context Clues on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension


There are a number of factors that influence the way a learner comprehends a reading passage. One of these factors is the context clues. This study was designed to investigate the effects of context clues on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Two intact classes consisting of 60 intermediate students taking 3-credit General English course at Golestan University were randomly selected and divided into two groups, the context group and the control group. Both groups were given an individual background questionnaire, English proficiency test and a reading test as pretest. Then the experimental (context) group practiced different kinds of context clues as treatment for duration of eight sessions, while the control group received no training. At the end of the project, a posttest was administered to both groups in order to evaluate the effect of the clues on the learner’s reading comprehension. The findings displayed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in the posttest.

Key words: context clues; reading comprehension; strategies; EFL learners

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Humanizing Foreign Language Instruction Based on Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs


Humanistic ideas in education are widely known since in the 60s and 70s the work of well-known psychologists such as Rogers or Maslow put forward theoretical bases for the humanistic movement. The writings of proponents of humanistic language teaching such as Moskowitz (1978), Stevick (1990) and Arnold (1999) have focused on the cognitive, affective and physical needs of the learner and several alternative methods for language teaching have offered different ways of putting all these ideas into practice. Humanistic language teaching places great emphasis on the human natural capacity for learning. This article emphasizes that humanistic education is more dependent on the inner need for self-evaluation. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is an example of emphasizing the inner value of learning for individuals which can be used as a framework for foreign language teaching. Basic needs, safety needs, belonging needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs all have their own implications to our language teaching in a humanistic framework.

Keywords: Humanism, hierarchy of needs, self-actualization, language teaching

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Investigating the Effect of Portfolio Assessment on Vocabulary Learning of Iranian EFL Learners


Vocabulary as a major component of language learning has been the objective of numerous studies, each of which has its own contribution to the field. This study tried to investigate the effect of portfolio assessment as a teaching, learning and assessment tool on vocabulary learning of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To this end, forty-three EFL female learners aged from 14 to 18 were chosen through convenience sampling from Shokouh language institute in Qhaemshahr, Mazandaran province. They were randomly assigned into two groups: experimental (n=24) and control group (n=19). The experimental group received the treatment i.e. portfolio assessment. They were asked to make portfolios. During the study learners reflected on assessment that they completed and created a portfolio to show what and how they learned and the teacher provided them with feedback whereas the control group received conventional classroom instruction. After the treatment, by pre-test/ post-test comparison the researcher found that participants of the experimental group who were exposed to the techniques of portfolio assessment, gained better scores in the process of learning vocabulary and outperformed the learners in the control group. Both high-stake and low-stake holders can avail from the findings of this study. The results have also some implications for assessment, teaching and learning of L2 vocabulary learning.

Key words: portfolio assessment, vocabulary learning, EFL learners.

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Usage of Myths and Folklore: Thematic Reflections in Karnad’s Hayavadana (Volume 3 – Issue 6)


Drama is a composite art in which the written word of the playwright is concretized when it becomes the spoken word of the actor on the stage. Indian drama written in English and translated in English by Indian playwrights has registered a remarkable growth recent decades. Contemporary Indian drama in English translation has made bold innovations and fruitful experiments in terms of both thematic concerns and technical virtuosities. It has been increasingly turning to history, legend, myth and folklore, tapping their springs of vitality and vocal cords of popularity with splendid results. Girish Karnad, Mohan Rakesh, Badal Sircar and Vijay Tendulakar have remained the most representative of the contemporary Indian drama not only in Hindi, Bengali, Marathi and Kannada respectively but also on the pan-Indian level. Among the major dramatists mentioned above, Girish Karnad has been regarded as the leading dramatist so far as the use of myth and history is concerned and his plays vividly represent this trend. In all his plays- be mythical, historical or legendary – Karnad’s approach is modern. In his play, Hayavadana, he reinforces the central problem of human existence in a world of tangled relationships. In Hayavadana, he skillfully uses the principles and theme of Indian mythology, folk tales and folk theatre- masks, curtains, dolls, the story-within-a-story—to create a bizarre world of incomplete individuals, indifferent gods, dolls that speak and children who cannot – world which appears to be indifferent to the desires and frustrations, joys and sorrows of human beings. In this paper an attempt has been made to study how successfully Karnad has used myth, folk tales and history to represent his theme in his play.

Key words- Indian Drama, mythology, legendary, folk tales, folk theatre, history.

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Using Action Research as a tool to Enhance Teaching Efficiency of Pre-service Teachers (Volume 3 – Issue 6)


One of the growing interests in teacher education lies in how and what teachers learn across time and space in the complex ecologies and technologies of today’s society. Teacher research has been implemented in teacher education programs as a powerful, exploratory tool for pre-service teachers’ to inquire about educational problems and to improve their knowledge of practice teaching. This paper presents insights gained from review of some books, articles and action research projects completed by pre-service teachers’ enrolled in a graduate reading methods course. To better understand what teacher understands what teachers learned through the action research process and how their self-study analyzes the teachers’ project?

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Attitudes to Varieties of English: The Postcolonial Scenario (Volume 3 – Issue 6)


The spread of English across the globe is a unique phenomenon. From the language of the one-time colonial masters it has emerged to be the choice of the people all around. It is no more looked upon as a colonial imposition rather a passport to better employment and a medium for cross cultural communication. One of the most notable results of the global diffusion of English is its nativization which in turn has given birth to varieties of English. Despite the growth of democratic values and an acceptance of differences, these varieties are not ranked the same by many. There are those who valorize them and there are those who denigrate them. This paper looks at such varying attitudes to the varieties of English and tries to analyze the reasons behind the fostering of such attitudes.

Key words: global diffusion, varieties, denigrating attitude, valorizing attitude, native speaker, non- native speaker

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The Role of Corrective Feedback in Learners’ Phonological Uptake across Gender (Volume 3 – Issue 6)


A major concern for most EFL researchers is to find appropriate ways for the improvement of learners’ language attainment in EFL contexts. To this end, they focus on learners as well as teachers to find suitable methods and create better conditions to enhance the learning. For the past decades, classroom talks and teacher-learner interactions have received serious attention. The current study was an attempt to examine the role of male and female teachers in the provision of corrective feedback that leads to male and female learners’ phonological uptake. All teachers-learners moves in the error correction sequences were identified and transcribed from audio-recordings of 32 hours of instruction from 8 classes with 8 qualified instructors. The researchers also used an interview to obtain fully reliable data. The result based on the chi-square analysis shows that there is a significant relationship between teachers’ corrective feedback and learners’ uptake. Therefore female teacher used more corrective feedback moves in their classrooms but uptake happened more for male learners.

Keywords: corrective feedback, phonological uptake, gender

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