Needs Analysis in Developing ESP and EAP Materials (Volume 3 – Issue 6)

Author: BAHAREH JOUYBAR

ABSTRACT

Language for specific purposes (LSP) is a movement seeking to serve the language needs of learners who need language in order to perform specific roles and who, therefore, need to acquire content and real-world skills by the medium of a second language rather than gain mastery over language for its own sake. English for specific purposes (ESP) programs are specifically developed for professional fields of study. A course in English for agriculture or business writing is considered an example of English for specific purposes.  EAP is identified as a term broadly applied to any course, module, or workshop where learners are taught to deal with academically related language and subject matter. He asserts that EAP is common at the advanced level of pre-academic programs as well as in other institutional settings.  Needs analysis procedures made their appearance in language planning and became widespread in language teaching. The type of needs analysis for EAP/ESP focuses on gathering detailed language used for academic and vocational or other specific language needs. However, it has been claimed that ESP takes a better care of students’ needs and extends beyond its traditional EAP base. This paper briefly discusses the development of English for academic and specific purposes and talks about the importance of inserting needs analysis before EAP/ESP materials are developed. ELT practitioners, teachers, and materials developers may benefit from the discussions of this paper.

Key words: English for academic purposes, English for academic purposes, needs analysis

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Samuel Beckett’s Dramatic World (Volume 3 – Issue 6)

Author: DR. ANIL DHAGE

ABSTRACT

Although Samuel Beckett shared a good deal with his contemporary dramatists, one of the factors which earned Beckett a unique position amongst new avant-garde dramatists was that he touched the very basic problems of human life, and looked at the existentialist predicament of man in a truly human and ethical manner. Beckett sought to express his profound and complex vision of man and his universe through the plays where he employs his own dramatic devices as he finds the existing forms terribly inadequate to bear the burden of his thought. Beckett chose to give expression to his vision through complex poetic images and symbols. In short, Beckett’s uniqueness lies in his unique dramatic world. His dramatic career undoubtedly marks an important and outstanding phase in the avant-garde movement of the theatre.

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Impact of Societal Factors and New Linguistic Theories on Paradigm Shifts in ELT: An Overview (Volume 3 – Issue 6)

Author: SATYAWAN POLIST

ABSTRACT

Language teaching in twentieth century has witnessed frequent change and innovation in language teaching paradigms. There has been a series of language teaching methods over the years, each being succeeded by a better one until we reach the present. Common to each method is the belief that the teaching practices it supports provide a more effective and theoretically sound basis for teaching than the methods that preceded it. A long term historical perspective of language teaching paradigms from the Grammar-Translation Method  to the Post Method approach shows that there is no such thing as ‘best method’. There is a link between paradigm shift in language teaching and change in scientific and societal scenario at a particular time and place. Different approaches to teaching English did not occur by chance, but in response to changing geopolitical circumstances and social attitude and values, as well as the shifts of fashion in linguistics.

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Unconventional Materials for Promoting Autonomous Learning (Volume 3 – Issue 6)

Author: JAYARON JOSE

ABSTRACT

Variety is the spice of life! The prescribed textbooks and other teaching materials are quite common to the learners. Handling of such conventional materials can be partially disinteresting and monotonous, too.  Such materials limit the users of their creative and critical thinking, restricting learner autonomy in the long-term learning process. Hence, teachers can use a lot of learner-friendly unconventional supplementary materials such as newspapers, tabloids, stories, jokes, riddles, realia, etc., for ELT (English Language Teaching). The writer attempts to highlight the significance of such materials in promoting learner’s autonomy and critical thinking through a variety of collaborative activities. The article contains an overview of selected unconventional ELT themes and classroom activities for readers to consider.

Keywords: Unconventional, autonomous, materials, activities

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Effects of Implicit Versus Explicit Vocabulary Instruction on Intermediate EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Knowledge (Volume 3 – Issue 6)

Authors: AMIR MARZBAN1, KIMIA KAMALIAN2

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether implicit instruction of vocabulary is more effective than explicit instruction. Also, it was of interest to the researchers to find out, between the two different methods of explicit instruction of vocabulary, which method was more useful in learning the meaning of the intended vocabulary. To this purpose, thirty five Iranian EFL learners participated in the three treatment sessions implicit instruction, explicit instruction through giving marginal glossary and explicit instruction by checking words in dictionaries.The results  showed  that the difference among the mean scores of the three groups were statistically meaningful. The subjects with explicit instruction 1 and explicit instruction 2 performed better as compared with subjects who received implicit instruction. Between the two explicit methods of vocabulary instruction, checking words in the dictionary  led to better learning  of vocabulary as compared with giving marginal glossary. The results will be insightful for both teachers and material developers in designing appropriate materials and activities for teaching vocabulary.

Key words: Implicit instruction, explicit instruction, vocabulary knowledge

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Reading – a Neglected Art (Volume 3 – Issue 6)

Author: Mrs V RADHIKA

ABSTRACT

‘Reading Maketh a Perfect Man’, says Bacon.

Learning is a complex activity and a continuous process. In the process reading is one of the important skills. It is a complex communicative skill. It involves understanding the sound pattern. To get fluency in reading, there are two major approaches known as intensive reading and extensive reading. But in this new technological world reading skill gets deteriorating. This article encounters the reasons for deterioration of reading skill and suggests some ways to improve it.

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On the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Teachers’ Self-efficacy in High School and University Contexts (Volume 3 – Issue 6)

Authors: NASRIN SIYAMAKNIA, MASOUD ZOGHI, AMIR REZA NEMAT TABRIZI

ABSTRACT

The current study attempts to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and EFL instructors’ self-efficacy at the high school and university level. To this end, 102 instructors from local universities and high schools located in East and West Azarbaijan, Iran were selected as a sample of this research. In order to collect the necessary data, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (the EQ-i) and Bandura’s Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale were used. Results suggest that there is a significant relationship between teachers’ emotional intelligence and their self-efficacy beliefs. The study concludes that it is necessary to both highlight the necessity of emotional intelligence and focus more attention on the role of it in EFL contexts.

Key words: Emotional intelligence, selfefficacy, university instructors, EFL contexts.

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Differential Effectiveness of Corrective Feedback Techniques on the Development of Advanced Iranian EFL Learners’ Grammar Ability

Authors: GHOLAM-REZA ABBASIAN1, PARYA PARSARAD (corresponding) 2

This study was an attempt to give answer to some questions concerning finding the most effective ways to present feedback to advance level EFL learners’ grammatical errors in writing by comparing the impact of self-correction based written corrective feedback techniques and teacher-correction based ones on the development of learners’ grammar ability. To this end, a group of 62 female learners from a private English Institute and 41 both female and male learners from South Tehran Branch of Islamic Azad University were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: the first one received feedback on their writings through self-correction based written corrective feedback techniques but the second group was given teacher-correction based written corrective feedback through some techniques for their grammar errors. The learners given self-correction based written corrective feedback were supposed to self-correct their errors in the class after receiving their writing papers and in the case of not understanding the correct forms, with the help of their instructor, teacher or the researcher. The results indicated that self-correction based written corrective feedback and teacher-correction based written corrective feedback did not significantly affect the advanced EFL learners’ grammar ability development differently. However, the learners themselves perceived the self-correction based written corrective feedback techniques more effective and helpful in improving grammar ability.

Keywords: corrective feedback (CF), self-correction based written corrective feedback techniques, teacher-correction based written corrective feedback techniques

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The Effect of Context Clues on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension

Authors: SEYED JALAL ABDOLMANAFI ROKNI1, HAMID REZA NIKNAQSH2

There are a number of factors that influence the way a learner comprehends a reading passage. One of these factors is the context clues. This study was designed to investigate the effects of context clues on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Two intact classes consisting of 60 intermediate students taking 3-credit General English course at Golestan University were randomly selected and divided into two groups, the context group and the control group. Both groups were given an individual background questionnaire, English proficiency test and a reading test as pretest. Then the experimental (context) group practiced different kinds of context clues as treatment for duration of eight sessions, while the control group received no training. At the end of the project, a posttest was administered to both groups in order to evaluate the effect of the clues on the learner’s reading comprehension. The findings displayed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in the posttest.

Key words: context clues; reading comprehension; strategies; EFL learners

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Humanizing Foreign Language Instruction Based on Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Authors: ALI SEIDI (Corresponding author)1, TAHEREH MAHMOUDIAN DASTNAEE2, NARJES ABADATI3, ZAHRA DEHNAVI

Humanistic ideas in education are widely known since in the 60s and 70s the work of well-known psychologists such as Rogers or Maslow put forward theoretical bases for the humanistic movement. The writings of proponents of humanistic language teaching such as Moskowitz (1978), Stevick (1990) and Arnold (1999) have focused on the cognitive, affective and physical needs of the learner and several alternative methods for language teaching have offered different ways of putting all these ideas into practice. Humanistic language teaching places great emphasis on the human natural capacity for learning. This article emphasizes that humanistic education is more dependent on the inner need for self-evaluation. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is an example of emphasizing the inner value of learning for individuals which can be used as a framework for foreign language teaching. Basic needs, safety needs, belonging needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs all have their own implications to our language teaching in a humanistic framework.

Keywords: Humanism, hierarchy of needs, self-actualization, language teaching

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