‘A Critical Review of Jenifer Jenkins’s Lingua Franca Core in the Context of English as an International Language’ by PARESH JOSHI

Abstract

The present paper primarily endeavours to critically review the efficacy of Lingua Franca Core (LFC) by Jenifer Jenkins in the emerging contents of English as an International Language (EIL). There is hardly any consensus on norms for teaching pronunciation among the researchers. There is an increasing amount of protest against the use of Received Pronunciation (RP) as universal norm for teaching pronunciation in favour of non-native speakers (NNS) who are an English speaking majority today. The NNSs out outnumber the native speakers by a huge margin. Bearing in mind the majority of NNSs, Jenkins argues against the hegemony of the native standards for teaching pronunciation and very strongly maintains that the standardization of norms should take in to consideration NNSs. Considering the prevailing contexts of EIL, she proposes LFC as a solution which according to her is simplified version of RP and takes into account evolving contexts of English in Outer and Expanding circles. The
paper critically examines LFC as whole by evaluating proposed seven priority areas for teaching pronunciation for facilitating international intelligibility in English. The paper also examines how much it deviates from RP in favour of NNSs. Finally, the paper would try to answer whether LFC is useful to NNSs for attaining international intelligibility in English.

Index Terms: Lingua Franca Core (LFC), Inter language Talk (ILT), International Intelligibility,
Received Pronunciation (PR), Common Core, Universal Norms, Native Speaker (NS), Non-Native
Speaker (NNS)

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‘Developing Dictionary Skills among Primary Pre-service Teachers’ by Dr. Kirankumar I. Chauhan

Abstract

For learners in L2 context dictionaries are often considered to be primary source of enriching vocabulary. In spite of dictionaries’ wider acceptance as a handy tool in second language learning, not much attention is paid towards formal training to use and develop dictionary skills among learners, especially in the context of Gujarat if the not the entire nation. This study is an attempt to train the primary pre-service teachers to become familiar with the purposes and utilities that dictionaries offer. Hence, the present paper reports a tryout carried out at DIET (District Institute of Education and Training) in Anand district, Gujarat. The aim of the project primarily was to develop dictionary skills among the preservice teachers.

Index Terms: Dictionary skills, Reference skills

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‘Evaluating American English File Text Books Based on Cunningsworth’s Criteria’ by Saeideh Shahriari & Amir Reza Nemat Tabrizi

Abstract

This study evaluated American English File text books based on Cunnings Worth (1995) model. A sum of 45 English learners and 20 teachers were selected from the total population of the available intermediate and advanced students at Shokouh English Institute in Kerman. Then, a checklist in the form of a questionnaire, which was adapted primarily from Cunningsworth’s (1995) checklist, was distributed among the teachers and students. The items of the questionnaire were developed according to 14 categories which were mentioned by Cunningsworth (1995). Using SPSS 16.0, the researcher evaluated both students’ and teachers’ answers based on the differences in the students answers according to their gender and also on the differences between teachers’ and students’ answers to the same questionnaire. The study was carried out and data was analyzed using an independent t-test to evaluate the teachers’ and students’ answers to questionnaire items. The results of questionnaire showed that the American English File textbooks were perceived as adequate books and they met the standards of a good textbook based on Cunningsworth’s (1995) criteria.

Index Terms: American English File Text Books, Cunningsworth’s criteria, Textbook Evaluation

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‘A Cross-cultural Investigation of Compliments and Compliment Responses: Comparing Persian Speakers, EFL Learners and English Native Speakers’ by Rozana Shamsabadi & Abbas Eslami Rasekh

Abstract

Compliments are one of the speech acts which require tact as there are cross-cultural differences which make them different across languages.  The research presented here is a comparison of compliment strategies across English and Persian. A cross linguistic comparison is made between three data types: Native Persian (NP), Native English (NE) and non-native English (NNE) to find the differences that exist between three groups of performances in the two languages. 30 advanced EFL learners, both male and female undergraduate and graduate students participated in this study. Family members were tape recorded for collecting natural data.  An open-ended DCT was employed for collecting data for our inferential and descriptive statistical analysis. The results of the analysis of data collected suggested that EFL learners differ from NE speakers in their Politeness strategies in giving and responding to compliment. The reasons were discovered to be both communicative incompetence and L1 transfer. Persian learners of English transfer some of their L1 pragmatic norms to L2 because they perceive these norms to be universal resulting from lack of awareness of the sociocultural norms governing compliments.

Index Terms: compliment, compliment response, speech act, cross-cultural differences

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‘The Effect of Jigsaw Technique vs. Concept Map presentation Mode on Vocabulary Learning of Low- Intermediate EFL Learners’ by Elham Asghari Astane & Shaban Berimani

Abstract

The present study aimed at finding the effectiveness of two techniques for teaching English vocabulary to Iranian EFL learners; A jigsaw procedure as an innovative cooperative technique and concept-mapping procedure as a technique that elicited the schemata, background knowledge and students ideas as well. Forty-four students were chosen from Mojtama Fanni Tehran and College institutes located in Babol through convenience sampling. The Jigsaw group consisted of Twenty-two low-intermediate participants in Mojtama Fanni Tehran. The concept-mapping group was taught vocabulary through concept- mapping technique in College institute. In fact they were our two independent experimental groups who were at low-intermediate level of proficiency. Then, they were homogenized by Oxford Proficiency Test. To evaluate the effect of each technique distinctively, both groups were given the same items as a pretest and posttest. After the eight sessions of treatment, the data was analyzed by independent t-test through SPSS version 18 to compare the results of pretests and posttests of both groups. The results revealed that both techniques were effective in learning vocabulary items and the concept-map group performed better on the post-test of vocabulary.

Index Terms: EFL learners, concept mapping, cooperative technique, jigsaw

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‘Speech Act of Congratulation among Persian Speakers’ by Farid Ghaemi & Fatemeh Ebrahimi

Abstract

Speech act of congratulation refers to expression of joy in the success or good fortune. This type of speech act in contrast to other types like request, apology, complaint, etc. is not the focus of attention like the other types. Therefore, the present study sought to scrutinize congratulation response among Persian speakers. To do so, 5o participants (26 men and 24 women) took part in this study. They completed a DCT (Discourse Completion Test) that contained two sections. The results revealed that Iranian mostly used illocutionary force indicating device, expression of happiness, and best wishes. Moreover, there was not any difference between men and women in applying formal or informal codes when expressing congratulation response.

Index Terms: Congratulation, Persian speakers, Speech act

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‘Literacy Skills of Tribal Students of Wayanad: Influence of Home Environment’ by Fr. Bennichan J& Dr. V.M. Subramanian

Abstract

Academic results reflect the socio-economic-psychological background of learners. The present study is based on the research done among the tribal high school learners of Wayanad regarding their English language skills. Language skill assessment and collection of personal profile including socio-economic status (SES) were conducted among 200 select students equally from Paniya, Kurichiya, Kuruma, Kattunaicka and Adiya tribes, attending class IX in Wayanad schools. Previous studies had already established that SES affects student’s outcomes. The present study underlines the theory using quantitative and qualitative methods. After analyzing the reading and writing scores, the influence of SES is established using SPSS Pearson Correlation method.

Key words: Home environment, Literacy skills, Socio-economic status, Tribal ELT, Wayanad.

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‘EFL Teacher Evaluation in the Eyes of EFL Students and Distinguished Observers: A Comparative Study’ by Saman Khaksefidi

Abstract

This study looks at how observers and students evaluate English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers. Different
views on teacher evaluation have been discussed while focusing on student evaluation is considered the rationale for
conducting this research. It explores the relationship between the observers’ and students’ evaluations of the teachers. Ten distinguished observers and 40 students took part in the research. By replying to 43 items of a questionnaire prepared by Chugach School District with alternatives from excellent to very poor, they evaluated the teacher. SPSS results revealed a very strong correlation of 0.84 between the evaluations done by the observers and the students. Thus, the students’ evaluations were very close to the observer’s evaluation. Students’ opinions of their teachers, though it is assumed to be biased and unrealistic, can be of assistance in having a more reliable evaluation of teachers if regarded carefully, and it can be included as a corroborating factor in the evaluation program of EFL institutes and at times it can determine the biased evaluations of the observers.

Key words: Biased evaluation, EFL students and teachers, Observer, Teacher Evaluation.

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‘The relationship between Critical Thinking Ability and Reading Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners’ by Mansour Fahim & Zohreh Hoominian

Abstract

The current empirical study has attempted to determine if there is any significant relationship between critical thinking of Iranian fresh EFL learners and  those categories of reading strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive, and compensation) that are mostly used by EFL learners. Thirty Iranian EFL Fresh female students studying in a private institute in Yazd in Iran participated in this study. Based on the purposes of the study, two questionnaires were administered to the participants: a critical thinking questionnaire and a reading strategy questionnaire. Results of the study showed that the most frequently used reading strategies were meta-cognitive strategy and cognitive strategy. Statistical analyses revealed no correlation between learners’ critical thinking ability and their overall use of reading strategies.

Keywords: Cognitive Strategy, Compensatory Strategy, Critical Thinking, Metacognitive Strategy, Testing Strategy.

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‘Translation of the Persian Lexical Collocational Patterns into English from a Comparative Phraseological View’ by Zeinab Danyari & Forouzan Dehbashi Sharif

Abstract

This article aimed to shed light upon the nature of the differences in collocational patterning of Persian and English languages and sought to find which Persian collocational patterns, from phraseological point of view, would be used when the translators are nonnative Persian speakers and what kind of structural shifts might have the dominancy in English translation of Persian collocational patterns while translating the Persian collocations into English. For this purpose, eleven Persian texts were chosen from different genres and periods of time. The texts were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. 550 collocations were extracted from Persian texts and then, their English correspondences were extracted from the English translations of the selected Persian texts. Persian collocations and their English correspondence were compared and analyzed based on their structural patterns and all the possible shifts were gathered up. Based on the findings of this research, Persian language contains at least forty collocational patterns. The researcher also found that noun + adjective pattern had the highest frequency among the Persian collocational patterns, while adjective + noun and noun + noun were highly frequent in English texts. Moreover, the results of this research showed there was a significant difference between the Persian lexical collocational patterns and their restrictions with their English correspondence in the translated texts.

Index Terms: Collocational Patterning, Collocational Restrictions, Lexical Collocations, Phraseology

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