‘Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis in Language Teaching: Friends or Foes’ by Shivani

Abstract

The paradigm of teaching and learning of a second language has always encountered the problem and the much debated issue of learners’ errors. The teachers and linguists always seek to find the causes of error made by second language learners so as to optimize the performance of the learners. For this purpose various theories like contrastive analysis, error analysis, interlanguage etc. have been proposed by linguists from time to time. The present research paper is an attempt to suggest a teaching methodology where contrastive and error analyses act as complementary to each other rather than being opponents to each other.  In this paper I will discuss the concept of Contrastive and Error analyses in detail followed by discussion on action plan incorporating the components of contrastive and error analyses for the teacher of English as a second language.

Key words: Contrastive analysis (CA), Error analysis (EA), First language (L1), Second language (L2), Target language (TL)

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‘The Relationship between Socio-economic Status and Academic Achievement in an EFL Classroom among Iranian University Students’ by Farid Ghaemi & Mahbubeh Yazdanpanah

Abstract

The problem of socioeconomic status is getting more and more tangible in universities due to its impacts on the students’ academic achievement. Thus, it is important to have a clear understanding of what benefits or hinders university-age students’ educational attainment. As such, the present research aims to investigate the effects of the socio-economic status on EFL sophomore learners’ academic achievement in the national university of a town in Iran named Rafsanjan. Pearson Product Moment correlation showed that the relationship between SES and GPAs for the participants of this study was so that SES had remarkable relationship with GPAs. However, the direction of this relationship shows that the participants with a mid/high SES had significantly lower GPAs than the participants with a low SES. This finding of the study which is as opposed to the research conductors’ expectations has valuable implications for the educational programs and families.

Key Words: Socioeconomic status, Academic achievement, EFL learners, Grade point average

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‘Corrective Feedback and the Story of EFL Teacher’s Experience’ by Javad Gholami & Khorshid Mousavi

Abstract

The present study was concerned with exploring the frequency of corrective feedback types given by novice and experienced female teachers working with young learners and compared it with those of elementary classes for adults. To this end, oral corrective feedback was tracked in 6 young and 6 adult EFL classes involving 48 hours of classroom interactions between experienced and novice Iranian teachers and their learners. The results indicated that there is a significant difference between novice and experienced teachers’ use of corrective feedback types. This study found an overwhelming tendency in both groups of teachers to use recasts in an error treatment sequence. The findings also revealed that every teacher owned her particular and unique method in error-correction. Despite the fact that novice and experienced teachers ignored a large number of errors especially in young learners’ classes, experienced teachers addressed them in their later instructions more often than their novice counterparts. Further results and implications are discussed in the study.

Keywords: Corrective feedback, experienced EFL teachers, novice EFL teachers, young and adult EFL learners

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‘Genre-based Analysis of English Patient Information Leaflets (PILs)’ by Rahil Sheibani, Farid Ghaemi

Abstract

Genre-based studies offer an insight to linguistic researchers as well as EFL, ESP teachers which can be used in instruction. This study sought to identify the rhetorical structures of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). This research is a genre analysis that aimed at identifying the macro- and micro-structure of PILs. Thirty PILs were analyzed in this study. The microstructure analysis was done at two levels of move and step. The analysis is done based on Swales’ (1990) model. The overall macro- and micro-structure of PIL is recognized. The results of the analysis indicated that PILs were composed of 17 sections, and each section had its own particular move-step framework.

Keywords: genre, move, step

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‘An Analysis of the Thematic Structures in Persian and English Expository and Narrative Texts’ by Hashem Maleki

Abstract

Systemic Functional Grammar, originally proposed by Halliday, has been used in many disciplines, such as Applied Linguistics, Sociolinguistics, Composition and Rhetoric. This theory of language description has yielded fruitful results and has been the basis of studies in interdisciplinary studies like (Critical) Discourse Analysis and Translation Studies, to name some. This theory is the basis of the present study, to find the ways in which the Theme and Rheme patterns may differ (if at all) in two genres of composition, Expository and Narrative texts in English and Persian. The thematic structure of different text genres vary systematically, since each genre calls for different ways to represent ideas. To put this into perspective, sample texts from the two genres written originally in English and Persian are selected, analyzed, and the similarities and/ or differences will be accounted for. The primary purpose of this study, then, is to find and describe, and at a higher level, to explain the reasons as to why the two languages use similar/ different thematic patterns. This study reveals that the different thematic structures associated with different text types (genre) in English narrative and expository texts are not, or, cannot be mapped on similar text types in Persian.

Key words: Thematic structure, Expository and Narrative texts, English and Persian

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‘The Effect of Listening on Improving Student’s English Language Reading Comprehension’ by Mojtaba Moradi, Hajar Khanmohammad, Rahil Sheibani

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate whether listening can improve Student’s EL Reading Comprehension.  This study was conducted with 40 learners including 20 male and 20 female junior EFL learners of 18-35, studying at Islamic Azad University IAU, Shiraz, branch, Iran, in 2013. A proficiency test was administered to show their homogeneity and equivalency. They were put into four groups of ten namely:  female experimental and control groups, and male experimental and control ones. A nearly simple short story of eight pages was introduced to both female and male ones. The experimental groups were given the treatment, which was reading and listening the passage of the short story simultaneously, while no treatment was given to the control ones, but just to read the short story. The researcher made use of the T-test to figure out the differences, if any, between the groups. The result showed that the male experimental group answered the reading comprehension questions  better than the male control case, while for the female , the opposite condition came true, that is to say that the female control group had better answers for the reading comprehension than those of the experimental one.

INDEX TERMS — control group, EFL learners, experimental group, intermediate level, proficiency test, short story, T-test.

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‘The Verb Phrase in Marathi’ by Leena Jadhav

Abstract

The verb is called ‘kriyapad’ in Marathi, which means an action word. It is as important in Marathi sentence structure as in English. Marathi verbs inflect for person, number and gender of the subject and the direct object in the sentence. Like English, Marathi, too, has inflectional and derivational verb morphology. Verbs in Marathi can be classified into various types depending on different criteria. This paper studies the verb phrase in Marathi from a linguistic point of view. The verb phrase in Marathi consists of minimum one verb and maximum three verbs. It shows contrasts of tense, aspect, mood and voice. After discussing the various types of verbs in detail, the paper explores the different concepts related to the verb phase, namely, finite vs. non-finite verb phrase, tense, aspect, mood and voice. It is very interesting note that Marathi verb phrase also shows morphological contrasts of tense, aspect, mood and voice as that of many other languages in the world. It is very important to understand the difference between tense and aspect as these grammatical categories are often conflated in many Indo-European languages.

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‘Organisational Activities in Teaching English’ by Dr Sudarsan Sahoo

Abstract

English is an international language. To gain the command and mastery on       this language, systematic approach is to be practised. Regular practices and activities are indispensable           for the English teachers for their strength of teaching in the English classrooms. The students and teachers should feel more comfortable on this subject. The learning process needs to be more enjoyable, systematic and complete.

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‘Educational Films: Path to Enhance the EFL Learners’ Metaphoric Competence’ by Gholam Reza Tabatabaee

Abstract

Metaphoric language is an important aspect of second language, and the importance of developing metaphoric competence has attracted many scholars’ interest, recently. It has been repeatedly emphasized by scholars that the implications of metaphoric competence for second language learning should be scrupulously examined. This paper reports on a study carried out to inspect the enhancement of metaphoric competence in EFL learners. In this study 24 upper-intermediate EFL learners were chosen to be exposed to the educational films of Top-Notch series with the high density of metaphoric expressions. They were supposed to be able to produce metaphoric language properly at the end of the study. The findings revealed that it was possible to boost EFL learners’ metaphoric competence in classroom setting through motivating them with the use of films.

Keywords: EFL Learners, Metaphoric Competence, Conceptual Fluency, Film

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‘Where Does Language Knowledge Come from? A Review of the Philosophical and Epistemological Considerations: Seeking Implications for Second Language Learning and Teaching’ by Mohammad Khatib & Mohammad Reza Mozayan

Abstract

This article is an attempt to investigate whether the gestures used by children affect their communication in English.  This study explored how children communicate in the second language by using gestures. It determines whether children’s nonverbal behaviours or gestures are positive in communicating in the second language when the children are tired too. This study was done on two boys, Mohammad and Abolfazl, with the age of 7 and 5 respectively. They were learning English language at their home. They were brothers and they were the researcher’s nephews. They have been taught English for more than 6 months.  The researcher used different pictorial and visual instruments to teach them to talk and communicate in English language, but most of the times, they made use of their gestures to say their purposes. The researcher made use of a kind of video recording at the times of reading the books, watching the films, and having the snacks and meals. The result showed that the actions accompanied with gestures were more meaningful and communicative, and their learning was fostered and they were more motivated. So, it indicated that children’s use of gestures to communicate in English was one of the best ways to be used even for the time that they cannot remember the words or when they are too tired to talk.

Key words: gestures, videotaped, videotaped, communicate, fostered, children.

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