‘A Critical Review of Jenifer Jenkins’s Lingua Franca Core in the Context of English as an International Language’ by PARESH JOSHI

Abstract

The present paper primarily endeavours to critically review the efficacy of Lingua Franca Core (LFC) by Jenifer Jenkins in the emerging contents of English as an International Language (EIL). There is hardly any consensus on norms for teaching pronunciation among the researchers. There is an increasing amount of protest against the use of Received Pronunciation (RP) as universal norm for teaching pronunciation in favour of non-native speakers (NNS) who are an English speaking majority today. The NNSs out outnumber the native speakers by a huge margin. Bearing in mind the majority of NNSs, Jenkins argues against the hegemony of the native standards for teaching pronunciation and very strongly maintains that the standardization of norms should take in to consideration NNSs. Considering the prevailing contexts of EIL, she proposes LFC as a solution which according to her is simplified version of RP and takes into account evolving contexts of English in Outer and Expanding circles. The
paper critically examines LFC as whole by evaluating proposed seven priority areas for teaching pronunciation for facilitating international intelligibility in English. The paper also examines how much it deviates from RP in favour of NNSs. Finally, the paper would try to answer whether LFC is useful to NNSs for attaining international intelligibility in English.

Index Terms: Lingua Franca Core (LFC), Inter language Talk (ILT), International Intelligibility,
Received Pronunciation (PR), Common Core, Universal Norms, Native Speaker (NS), Non-Native
Speaker (NNS)

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‘Session Planning in (English Language) Teaching: A Paradigm Shift towards Three-tiered Integrated Pedagogy and Management of Teaching’ by Govind B. Dave

Abstract

Teaching, particularly, (English Language) Teaching has passed through a very critical period. Right from Policy decisions of incorporating English into various curricula to Pedagogical Issues and concerns; from various types of courses to methods of teaching; and from course content to session planning. Session Planning is considered to be an essential and important component of teaching practices. It not only makes the teaching – learning process more focused but also adds to the creativity of the teacher and the learner in the classroom. It helps the teacher decide approaches taking into consideration the requirements of the course and individual learners. Thus, in a way, it forms bedrock of effective teaching in the classroom. It helps the teacher manage his / her teaching and move ahead in the three-tiered pedagogy concerning planning, teaching and evaluation. The paper focuses upon the need and the importance of session planning with reference to Teaching in general and (English Language) Teaching in particular. It also shows how it gifts the curriculum and its pedagogy a move / shift in its paradigm from random teaching to more planned / managed and focused learner – centric teaching.

Keywords: Curriculum, Pedagogy, Management of Teaching, (English Language) Teaching, Teaching Methods, and Session Planning

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‘Gender Variation in Vocabulary Teaching and Learning’ by H. Renolyn Jeyanth

Abstract

Language is one of the wonderful gifts given by God to humanity. It is with the help of language that man is able to communicate and solve a number of his problems and has been able to make a lot of achievements in life. It is also important in our lives dominating our social and cognitive process. It is the fulcrum of education, functioning as the medium of communication between students and teachers and students and textbooks. In this paper, let us find whether there is any gender variation influence in the teaching and learning of the vocabulary.

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‘Communicative Approach towards Teaching Of English Prepositions’ by VIPUL B. GODHANIYA

Abstract

Preposition is a very important part of speech in English. Not only there are a great number of them in English, but also they are used for a wide range of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic functions. Knowing how to use prepositions correctly in English is considered a yardstick against which one’s English level is measured.  It is difficult to learn and to teach correct usage of English prepositions. They make confusions even for native speakers also. The successful teaching of English prepositions depends upon the correct usage of them and practical or communicative approach towards them. English language and grammar have been taught through various methods, techniques, and approaches since the discipline ELT came into existence. Some of the methods are popular like direct method, audio-lingual method, silent way method, suggestopedia, and natural approach, community language learning method, total physical response method, and structural-situational approach among the language experts. But these methods haven’t played significant role in second language learning. So, experts of ELT are bound to investigate impressive techniques for teaching of second language. It would be fair to say that if there is any one umbrella approach to language teaching that has become the accepted ‘norms’ in this field, then it would have to be the Communicative Language Teaching Approach. This is also known as CLT. The present research paper aims to discuss teaching of English prepositions with the help of Communicative Language Teaching Approach. Researcher suggests some useful methods to teach English prepositions in this research paper. This paper may help teachers of English for discussing English prepositions in language classrooms.

Key terms: Communicative Approach, English Prepositions

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‘Developing English Communicative Skills of Grade Five Students from Primary Schools in Lampang through Task-Based Learning’ by JUAJAN WONGPOLGANAN, SIRIPHAN KHATKUMHAENG, PRANOM WONGMEUNRAT, BUSSARAKUM INTASUK & THANAPHAN NA CHIEANGMAI

Abstract

The purposes of this quasi-experimental research were: 1) to improve English learning and teaching in schools from the practicum school network of Lampang Rajabhat University, Lampang, Thailand; and 2) to launch the co-operative network for improving the learning and teaching of English from individuals, schools, communities and the like. The samples were 147 Grade Five students of the six primary schools in Lampang Province. Those schools were selected purposively and the students were treated as the experimental group using task-based learning (TBL) activities. The achievement tests were assigned to the students both before and after the commencement of the lessons. After the five-week teaching, the participants were assigned to answer the questionnaire on their satisfaction towards TBL and their teachers. Moreover, the university students who volunteered to teach those school children were assigned to evaluate their attitudes towards their teaching using TBL. The researchers observed the classroom atmosphere and the interaction between the teachers and the students and between the students themselves. The findings revealed that the school children’s communicative skills after the lessons were developed significantly and it can be concluded that both Grade Five students and the university students were satisfied with TBL activities and their classroom interaction.

Keywords: English for communicative skills, task-based learning (TBL), primary  school  students

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‘New Directions for Materials Development in the Third Millennium’ by MOHAMMAD KHATIB & ASGHAR AFSHARI

Abstract

If we look back at our recent past, we can identify trends which are likely to characterize the nature of future society. As we begin the new millennium, many changes in society may affect trends in educational structures and language teaching respectively. A new millennium marks a moment when it is appropriate to think about what we have done, where we are now and how we should plan for the future (Littlejohn, 1998). This paper is an attempt to provide a picture of new directions for materials development in the third millennium by identifying four major trends supposed to affect the field in the new millennium including social constructivism, postmodernism, intercultural communicative competence, and   technological advancement.

Key words: constructivism, future curriculum, postmodernism, third millennium, intercultural communicative competence

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The Review of the Article `Test-taking Strategies for a High-stakes Writing Test: An Exploratory Study of 12 Chinese EFL Learners’ by ROZANA SHAMSABADI

Abstract

This review, grew from the original article by Yun Xuand Zunmin Wu , aims to report on a qualitative research study into the test-taking strategies employed in completing two picture prompt writing tasks—Situational Writing and Interpretational Writing in the Beijing Matriculation English Test. The research reveals a variety of test-taking strategies involved in completion of the two tasks. Based on the strategies employed, the results proved the presence of similarities in having the same starts according to the first picture, having parallel narrations, applying equal effort to each picture, not missing essential information of the pictures, and adding an ending to their narration in all participants’ writings. Students strived to guess test-developers’ intent and figure out the “best” theme instead of freely expressing their own interpretations. What the results of this study reveal is that they might fail to achieve the crucial goal of measuring creative thinking .The researcher found that the original intention of Interpretational Writing had been badly distorted. The present review of this article has attempted to explore the extent to which this paper fulfils the stated aims by having a cautious look through the papers` methodology in general and participants’ choices in details.

Keywords: EFL learners, Test-taking Strategies, High-stakes Writing Test

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‘The Impact of Cultural Orientation on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension and Achievement Motivation’ by MINA SADEGHI, JAHANBAKHSH NIKOOPOUR & FARSHAD AGHVAMI

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of cultural orientation on reading comprehension and achievement motivation of the EFL learners. To conduct this study, the researcher recruited 60 Iranian EFL learners at language institutes. All learners were selected from the intermediate level. They were assigned to two groups; experimental and control groups. The researcher used a number of cultural concepts and orientated the learners to these concepts as treatment in the experimental group. After the treatment the researcher administered the reading comprehension post test to measure the participants’ reading comprehension and a questionnaire to assess their achievement motivation. The findings showed the impact of familiarity with the cultural concepts before starting the reading texts on the participants’ reading comprehension and their achievement motivation.

Key words: culture, reading, EFL learners

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‘The Relationship between Critical Thinking and Reading Strategies Regarding Goals and Objectives in the Process of Curriculum Development’ by MANSOUR FAHIM & ASGHAR AFSHARI

Abstract

The current empirical study has attempted to determine if there is any significant relationship between critical thinking of Iranian fresh EFL learners and  those categories of reading strategies (cognitive, meta-cognitive)regarding goals and objectives in the process of curriculum development that are mostly used by EFL learners. Thirty Iranian EFL Fresh female students studying in a private institute in Tehran in Iran participated in this study. Based on the purposes of the study, two questionnaires were administered to the participants: a critical thinking questionnaire and a reading strategy questionnaire based on the goals and objectives in the process of curriculum development. Results of the study showed that the most frequently used reading strategies regarding the goals and objectives in the process of curriculum development were meta-cognitive strategy and cognitive strategy. Statistical analyses revealed no correlation between learners’ critical thinking ability and their overall use of reading strategies regarding the goals and objectives in the process of curriculum development.

Keywords: Cognitive strategy; curriculum development, metacognitive strategy; critical thinking

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‘The Impact of Teacher Self-disclosure on Iranian EFL Learners’ Language Proficiency’ by AMIR REZA NEMATTABRIZI & MAHNAZ POUYAN

Abstract

The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of Iranian English teachers’ self-disclosure in their classroom practices on students’ general language proficiency. To do so, following a test of language proficiency (TOEFL PBT), 52 Iranian EFL learners at the advanced level were randomly divided into two control and experimental groups. The experimental group received practices followed by teacher’s self-disclosure, while the control group did not follow this procedure. Following the treatment which lasted 25 sessions, both groups were subjected to another version of the TOEFL test as the post-test of the study to identify any improvements in their performance. The results revealed that teacher self-disclosure can positively influence students’ language proficiency.

Key words: Teacher self- disclosure, language proficiency, TOEFL, Iranian EFL Learners

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