‘Engineering Humanism in EFL Classroom: Depicting an Optimal Zone’ by KATAYOON MANSOURI

Abstract

The purpose of humanistic education is educating the whole person-the intellectual and the emotional aspects. Similarly, Lei (2007) believes that the aim of the humanistic educations is   not only developing the cognitive and linguistic capabilities of the learners but also paying attention to the learners’ emotions and feelings. Arnold (1998) goes on to hold that humanistic language teaching does not mean to substitute the cognitive for the affective, but rather to add the affective. This paper first presents a brief overview of philosophy, rational and principles of humanism, then some points to humanize materials are recommended. Afterwards, an optimal zone is regarded for humanism, and at last some critical points are mentioned.

Key Words: Humanism, Humanizing materials, Optimal zone, Optimal learning

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‘Interaction Hypothesis: A Comprehensive Theory of SLA?’ by FARID GHAEMI & NASER SALEHI

Abstract

The role of interaction in second language acquisition has always been controversial. A bunch of theories have been proposed as to the role of “nature” or “nurture” in SLA. Interaction Hypothesis (IH) introduced by Long accepts the role of “nurture” in SLA claiming that negotiation of meaning through interaction can facilitate the process of language learning. In this review, the IH will be evaluated according to Jordan’s Guidelines for theory construction in SLA. The findings show that IH generally conforms to the Guidelines and, apart from some shortcomings, can be considered a progress toward constructing a comprehensive theory of SLA. Finally, Ellis’s Interactionist Theory, a combination of IH and socio-cultural theory, is suggested as an updated version of IH.

Key words: Interaction Hypothesis, Second Language Acquisition, SLA theory

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‘Convergence and Divergence in British and American English: Culinary Vocabulary’ by ELAHEH JALILI ME’MARIAN

Abstract

This article explores the possible Convergence and/ or Divergence in “culinary vocabularies used in British English and American English”. This article explores ways to describe and understand the evolution of English language. The idea for this article formed when during a talk with friends, I conceived that there are different words for naming the same foods in close languages, and even within the same language. To put this idea into perspective, I fielded this question that “do the culinary vocabularies in American and British English are on a trend toward convergence or a divergence?” This study seems to have addressed an issue which has not seemingly been attended to yet under a linguistics umbrella. Therefore, this study focuses on depicting the possible future of these two varieties of English in terms of their historical and sociolinguistic changes. The historical and sociolinguistic changes include such features as “fashion”, “external factors”, and “social needs”. A similar survey including fifteen American and fifteen British students in an age range of 18-30, with the purpose of determining the interaction between the two varieties of English, it was found that the culinary vocabularies used by the two groups of speakers do not follow a total converging trend; with such words being in a constant partial convergence and divergence state.

Keywords: Language change, British English, American English, Culinary vocabulary, Divergence, Convergence

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