‘The Effect of Planning Pre-writing vs. Post-writing Task on Iranian In-termediate EFL Learners’ Paragraph Writing Ability’ by Pegah Doroudi & Morad Bagherzadeh Kasmani

Abstract

The present study sought to investigate the effect of pre-writing versus post-writing task on Iranian EFL learners’ paragraph writing ability. 45 intermediate students were selected via administering the OPT, then they divided into three groups of 15 and were randomly assigned to two experimental and one control groups. A pretest of writing was administered to all groups, after that, the researcher applied the pre-writing task for experimental group1  and post-writing task for experimental group 2 for 10 sessions while there was no treatment for the control group. A posttest of writing was then administered to all three groups and the data were analyzed a paired-samples T-test and ANOVA coefficients. The results of the study indicated that the participants performed better when they took part in a test after they were treated with pre-writing and post-writing tasks.

Index Terms: task, pre-writing, post-writing, writing skill.

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‘Exploring Language Teacher’s Roles: Personal Theories and Practices’ by Satyawan Polist

Abstract

The role and function of the language teacher has been a matter of continuous debate and discussion. A teacher, across the language teaching history, has emerged as Passive Technician, Reflective Practitioners, and Transformative Intellectuals. The teacher has been variously referred to as an artist and an architect; a scientist and a psychologist; a manager and a mentor; a controller and a counselor; a sage on the stage; a guide on the side. Every teacher has personal beliefs that bring the unique contribution to the learning situation. Teachers are not merely passive technician who dutifully execute a given set of teaching procedures rather active participants in the creation of classroom realities. A teacher assumes various roles like classroom management, interaction with learners, error correction and evaluation. Apart from this, managing large classes and use of technology in the class is another challenge for the teacher. An in-service teacher training is essential for teachers’ professional development and teaching competences.

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‘Understanding the Role of Listening in Academic Vocabulary Instruction – An Inquiry’ by Karthickeyen Govindaraj

Abstract

This paper is divided into two sections. The first section – in restricting its focus to students learning English for Academic Purposes (EAP) – outlines the importance of listening as a learning-teaching tool in vocabulary acquisition with an emphasis on the Academic Word List (AWL). This is achieved by reviewing current literature surveying the nexus between cognition and listening in the word-learning process (Anderson, 1995). The review points out that while promoting the AWL via aural activities has its merits, students’ listening competence, learning styles and working memory will both arbitrate and in tandem determine these activities’ success in the EAP classroom. The second section questions the efficacy of bridging theory with practice by assessing a lesson plan influenced by memory, cognitive and compensation strategies (Oxford, 1989). This hypothetical lesson will discuss an in-class activity that helps promote the AWL to the EAP learner, via a listening-based exercise focused on the identification of discourse markers in lectures. Drawing attention to both strengths and limitations of the stated exercise, the paper concludes with the argument that the success of any AWL-led listening-based vocabulary activity is dependent on its integration with other receptive (reading) and productive (writing and speaking) learning skills.

Index Terms: Listening, Vocabulary acquisition, Academic Word List, English for Academic Purposes.

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‘The Effects of Time Constraints on the Unity and Coherence of IELTS Candidates’ Writing Skills’ by Mohammad Zare, Sanaz Mohazabieh & Zahra Kamali

Abstract

This study investigates the effects of time constraints on writing ability of IELTS candidates in terms of two writing features of unity and coherence. To do this, a total number of 30 Iranian EFL learners attending IELTS preparation classes were chosen from both genders of male and female. Two standard IELTS writing task2topicswere selected by the researchers for both pre and post-tests. The candidates were categorized into two groups of control and experimental. The control one took the post-test under ordinary conditions, without limitation, allocating 40 minutes of time whereas the experimental group, were asked to achieve a task 2 essay under timed condition of 30 minutes.  Both pre and post-test writings were corrected by three IELTS writing assessors in order to increase the validity of scoring and decrease the subjectivity of the issue. With regard to first research question addressing the difference in writing performance of both genders under time stress, the findings indicated they both performed the same and less time allocation affected both genders’ performance to the same extent. The second research question that investigated the general effect of time stress on coherence and unity of the writings revealed the application of an increasing number of irrelevant sentences and reducing the unity of the writing task. However, the number of appropriate transitions that increase the coherence of the task was observed to be more in post-test which is due to the treatment during the course. Moreover, during a one to one interview, most students objected to the time limitation and its effect on their anxiety which made them seek resort to apply more irrelevant sentences. In the end of the study, it was concluded that time constraints affect the unity of the writing task, but not the coherence.

Index Terms: Coherence, Time Constraints, Transitions, Unit.

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‘A Comparison of Learners’ and Teachers’ Attitudes towards Communicative Language Teaching in Iran’ by Ashraf Hosseini Breshneh & Mohammad Javad Riasati

Abstract

Around the world need for good communication skills in English has created an enormous require for English teaching. Many people today want to improve their control of English or to ensure that their children achieve a good successful completion of English. And chances to learn English are provided in many different ways such as through formal instruction, travel, and study abroad, as well as through the media and the Internet. An increase in worldwide need for English has created a huge demand for quality language teaching and language teaching materials and resources. Learners set themselves demanding goals. They want to be able to overcome English to a high level of accuracy and fluency. In an attempt to let learners’ voices be heard, this study compares learners’ and teachers’ attitudes towards four factors relating to Communicative Language Teaching: the importance of grammar; the quality and quantity of error correction; the use of group work and pair work; and the role of teacher in the classroom. It also investigated the reasons behind attitudes the teacher and learners held toward CLT. For this purpose, an explanatory mixed method research was conducted. The first-phase quantitative study investigated teachers’ and learners’ attitudes toward CLT, while the second phase qualitative study explored the reasons underlying the teachers’ and learners’ attitudes toward CLT. Result of the data analysis showed that there were significant differences between the teacher and the learner participants about CLT, in general and the principles of grammar and error correction. The results of the interview showed that the teacher participants were familiar with CLT and agreed with this method of teaching. According to the findings from the interviews, the learner participants pointed out that both grammar and communicative activities are important but grammar should be taught indirectly.

Index Terms: Communicative Language Teaching, EFL learners’ teachers` attitudes, CLT principles.

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‘Use of Technology in Language Learning’ by Dr. Ashu Tomar

Abstract

Technological advance has contributed greatly to the acceleration of human progress in the past several centuries.  The information and communication technology can be a tremendous force for human development for all those connected by providing information, enabling empowerment and raising productivity.  Technology can be globalizing communication, but globalization and its new rules – is also shaping the path of new technologies. The last 20 years have seen some remarkable innovations in the delivery of education.  The technologies available today, and those about to emerge, have the potential to transform the business of education.  Some nations may decide to invest in technology for education for the “glitz factor”: the technology is there; it is fashionable to have the latest and the best, and it gives a sense of progress to use state-of-art-technology. The demand for more open and accessible learning has continued to increase. Many factors are contributing to this changing educational culture, the most important of which are economic, social, and technological forces.  These forces are worldwide in scope and power, and have had a profound impact on business practices, manufacturing processes, financial services, government policies, and, more recently, teaching practices and learning behaviours. The challenge of providing education and training to a huge and diverse population with a variety of learning goals and styles, at an acceptable cost, will require new forms of global educational delivery. The paper attempts to study the use of technology in learning English language.

Index Terms: Glitz- showiness, Innovation- new, A-V materials- audio video materials, Repertoire- skills, Diacritic- mark added to a letter to indicate a special pronunciation

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‘Upgradation of Language learning of Rural Indian Students through Mobile Apps: A Case study’ by Dr.Suneetha.Y, Mr.A.K.GopiKrishna & Mr.Kousar Basha

Abstract

Education and technology should co-evolve in mutually supportive ways. While people tend to think of education as perpetually lagging behind technology, there are numerous instances in which education has prompted technical innovation. Mobile devices permeate our daily lives, providing unparalleled access to communication and information. It seems clear that the future of mobile learning lies in a world where technology is more accessible, affordable and connected than it is today, especially in serving rural student populations who may not have adequate technology access. This paper explores six best mobile apps and examined the viability.  This study scrutinized how EL teachers and their students used the mobile app – Rosetta stone at rural level to support their teaching and learning. Further, the potential benefits of using such mobile app as a teaching and learning tool have been investigated. The target students are 25 selected girl students from A.P.(Andhra Pradesh) Tribal Welfare Junior College for Girls, Mahanandi, India. In a nutshell, it is an attempt to provide practical solutions to improve their levels by adopting technological methods such as mobile apps.

Index Terms: Mobile app, English Language learning, Language skills, Rural learners

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