‘The Relationship between Iranian EFL Teachers´ Classroom Management, Critical Thinking Skills, and their Years of Experience’ – Golkhand Azizinejad & Mohanna Rezaei

Abstract

In recent years the importance of promoting critical thinking skills and creative thinking in education has been widely acknowledged. More specifically, it is believed that the successful incorporation of these skills in the teaching of English as a second or foreign language has a central role. The purpose of the present study was to identify if there was any relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ classroom management, critical thinking skills, and years of experience. To this end, scores out of the classroom management and critical thinking skills questionnaire were collected and correlated with the years of experience of 30 Iranian EFL teachers who were selected as the sample of the study. The results showed significant correlation between classroom management, critical thinking skills, and their years of experience.

Index terms: classroom management, critical thinking, teachers’ years of experience.

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‘The Relationship between Gender and Implicit/Explicit Corrective Feedback: A Study of Speaking Collocation Errors by Iranian EFL Learners’ – Elaheh ShojaMoghadam & Narjes Ghafournia

Abstract

This study aimed at investigating the effect of explicit and implicit corrective feedback on the use of collocation across male and female students. This study is based on male and female students, who received three explicit, implicit, and blended corrective feedback. This paper intends to investigate whether there is a relationship between gender and the choice of these strategies. To fulfill the purpose of the study, 90 Iranian EFL learners, who were at the intermediate proficiency level of English, were chosen. Later, they were randomly assigned to four groups, composed of one control group and three experimental groups, receiving oral implicit and explicit corrective feedback on error of collocations. After seven sessions of treatment, a speaking test was taken as the posttest. The findings demonstrated that there is no significant gender difference among the participants of this study in terms of the type of corrective feedback, which they received.

Index Terms: explicit feedback, implicit feedback, blended feedback, collocations, error correction.

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‘Strategies Applied in Translation of Neologisms in Energy Field Jour-nalistic Texts Based on Newmark’s (1988) Model’ – Hajar Khanmohammad & Parvin Faghfouri

Abstract

The present study aimed to shed light upon the nature of the differences between Dictionary Equivalents of Archaeology Terminology and Those Suggested by Archaeology Experts and sought to discover if technical terms in Persian language texts follow the same patterns in comparison with their English correspondence in Archaeology texts. In this regard, English and Persian translation of some texts in energy magazines and books were selected as the corpus to investigate the probable differences or similarities between the strategies that are applied in word formation. The researcher conducted a careful comparative content analysis of both bilingual dictionaries and the Academy of Persian Language and Literature (APLL) principles by considering word formation and analyzed them based on APLL principles.  The researcher found out that there is a unity among equivalents in bilingual Archaeology Dictionaries. Moreover the results of this research showed there was not any significant difference between the percentages of the strategies used by the translator/s for choosing terms at the probability levels of 95% and 99%. Therefore, in general, existing bilingual dictionaries and APLL obey similar principles in word formation and choosing equivalences in the field of Archaeology.

Index Terms: translation, neologism, journalistic texts, Newmark’s (1988) model.

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‘The Use of Mnemonic Technique of Verbal-Pictorial Association in Re-trieval of Vocabulary Development among Iranian Introvert vs. Extrovert EFL Learners’ – Ahmad Yaghoubi, Amir Reza Nemat Tabrizi & Mohammad Naeimi

Abstract

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a mnemonic technique of verbal-pictorial association among Iranian introvert and extrovert EFL learners on vocabulary development with a focus on the retrieval of words. Accordingly, one hundred subjects were divided into two 50 students control and experimental groups. Two series of flash cards, as a treatment, one with mnemonic bizarre nature in flash cards as well as drawing common pictures on the board was given to the experimental group, but the control group was given just common flash cards. A post-test of 30 items for measuring retrieval was administered. The result indicated that the experimental introvert and extrovert groups significantly outperformed the control introvert and extrovert groups on the retrieval test. The experimental extrovert group also significantly outperformed the experimental introvert group on the retrieval test.

Index Terms: Extrovert, Introvert, Mnemonic, Retrieval.

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‘Developing Soft Skills among Indian Engineering Graduates: Problems and Solutions’ – Kavita Tyagi & Priti Vyas

Abstract

The world has changed over the last century, so has the world of work, where employers are highly concerned with the skills of young labour market entrants as they are facing difficulties in filling vacant positions. Their difficulty in finding the skilled candidates stems from two sources: Skills Shortage (lack of appropriately skilled graduates at a particular level of education and in the right field of study) and the Skills Mismatch (Adequate number of graduates with requisite education but lacking in appropriate job skills). The employment market is becoming more and more competitive as greater numbers of students are undertaking higher education courses and, therefore, Skills Shortage is no longer a problem. The main problem is the Skills Mismatch as the employers are looking for the professionals who have more to offer than simply a good degree. The major setback here is that plagued with problems like curriculum, lack of qualified faculty, poor quality of content, and not-so-effective examination system, technical institutions do not provide signaling value in the job market, for a disparity exists in the types of skills taught at colleges and those that are demanded in industry and the gap exists mainly because there is a lack of clear understanding regarding industry skills requirements. Therefore, it is critical to identify specific bottlenecks in skills demanded by employers, and to provide detailed information and practical suggestions to overcome the skills shortage. An attempt has also been made here to probe the causes of skills gap by understanding the industry’s workforce requirements and to provide an adequate and comprehensive coverage on the theoretical as well as practical domains in the field.

Index Terms: Skills Gap, Skills Mismatch, Bottlenecks, Skepticism, Industry Skills Requirement, Employment

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‘Teaching Protocols Effect on EAP Comprehension: Efficacy of Translation, Schema, and Strategy’ – Maryam Jebelli & Massoud Taj Al Dini

Abstract

Regarding teaching reading comprehension, there are different suggested protocols. Three of the commonest are named as translation, schematic knowledge, and the application of strategies. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of each protocol and propose the best one. Two hundred medicine student volunteers were called upon to participate in Oxford Placement Test. Then according to the test guideline, intermediate participants were distributed in three groups and all participated in pre-test. Ten treatment sessions (in total 45 hours) were conducted and then all took part in post-test. Regarding the post-test, between translation and schema, there is not any statistically significant difference, between translation and strategy, using reading strategies is more effective, and in the case of schema and strategy, both methods can be useful regarding medical texts. This study can be useful for pedagogical policy makers, curriculum and syllabus designers as well as materials developers, and language teachers.

Index Terms: Translation, Teaching Protocols, EAP, Reading Comprehension, Schema, Strategy.

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‘Reinterpretation of the Concept of Myth in Githa Hariharan’s Novel Thousand Faces of Night’ – Dr. V. Parvathi & Ms. J. laxmee kanthamma

Abstract

India is an ancient country with rich cultural heritage and cultural values. The woman in India is respected as mother but at the same time she has been oppressed and denied recognition of her invisible work. The conventional roles of women as portrayed by many male and female writers of the past the expectations of the society have been changed and women have started representing themselves as real human beings with equal educational  opportunities, emotions ,responsibilities so on and so forth on par with men. Githa Hariharan in her novel Thousand Faces of Night explores Indian mythology and re-interprets it from the women’s perspective to find a universal remedy for gender relations. The technique of revision of myth is also an act of demolition, exposing and detonating the stories that have hampered women. Her interpretation of the traditional tales elevates the image of women and attempts to re-instigate their position in the society that was downsized by men’s scriptures. The fabled myths and legends of India are reinterpreted with a young woman’s search for self. They make an attempt to explore the universal themes like freedom, independence and desire. The survival strategies of women of different generations and various social classes are presented. The theme of the novel proves that survival is the highest ideal in the struggle-ridden life of women and every woman has to learn for herself. It also attempts to answer whether the Indian culture can indicate the rightful direction to the woman and the woman who is burdened with so many issues, is wise enough to choose the right path. This paper aims at exploring reinterpretation of the concept of myth in Githa Hariharan’s novel Thousand Faces of Night

Key words: confining code of patriarchy, quest for identity, revision of myth, survival strategies, resurrection of the image of women

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‘Computer-Based Language Testing for GES 100 (Communication Skills in English) in UNIPORT: Is it Appropriate and Effective?’ – Umera-Okeke, Nneka

Abstract

Most tertiary institutions in Nigeria have adopted computer-based testing for their General Studies (GES) courses. Reasons given range from ease of administration, problems of large class, ease of marking as computer does everything, and so on. This can be said to be a step in the right direction as it agrees with the government’s intention to ensure computer literacy among school leavers and university graduates. Computer-assisted language test, however, is still questioned by many especially of its validity. The question is, is it achievable? Is it appropriate? Can it be effectively used in language testing? This paper is a descriptive evaluative one looking into the meaning of computer-based test, the tenets/components of computer language testing especially as used in testing GES 100 the University of Port Harcourt. The paper also evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of computer-based testing vis-a-vis the traditional paper-and-pencil testing. The challenges to its full adoption as a testing technique in the university were also highlighted and suggestions made.

Index Terms: Computer-based testing (CBT), computer-assisted language testing (CALT), paper-based testing (PBT), computer-adaptive language test (CALT)

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‘An Exploration of Sources of Foreign Language Listening Comprehension Problems from University Student’s Perspectives’ – Mansooreh Mallah, Khadijeh Jafari & Seyyed Hassan Seyyed Rezaee

Abstract

In spite of the importance of listening as the most challenging skill for students, there is less research about listening problems of EFL learners as compared with other language skills. The aim of this study, therefore, was to examine Iranian EFL students’ listening comprehension problems from students’ point of views. Fifty male and female students studying English at Islamic Azad University of Gorgan, Golestan Province, Iran voluntarily took part in this study. A teacher-made questionnaire with 26 items on students’ listening problem was developed. The results of questionnaire indicated that listener-related factor (e.g., lack of concentration, long texts and existence of noise) was the main source of listening comprehension problem among these students. The second source of problems related to speaker included bad accent and existence of hesitation in spoken text. The third groups of problems related to the content of listening text included unfamiliarity with topic, feeling fatigue while listening to long texts, and difficulty in understanding the idioms; and the last source of problem was related to linguistic features such as not distinguishing the word boundaries and the signals of changing from one point to another point. The findings of the present research may raise both students’ and teachers’ awareness regarding university EFL students’ listening comprehension problems.

Index Terms: listening comprehension problems, EFL students

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‘Critical Thinking Skills Instruction and Reading between the Lines’ – Hossein Pourghasemian & S. Mohammad Bagherzadeh Hosseini

Abstract

Critical thinking (CT) is an important life skill in modern societies and is of particular import in academic settings where students need to be able to analyze ideas to get at clear understanding. However, unlike ordinary thinking, which is an inborn human endowment, CT seems to require implicit or explicit instruction. Attempts have been made to introduce it into general education. And like any other innovation, it has found its way to second language pedagogy. Hence, there have been studies to relate CT to second language acquisition (SLA) in general and language skills in particular. This study set out to see if training in CT skills had any effect on the inferential reading comprehension. Sixty college students were selected through a proficiency (TOEFL) test and were then randomly assigned to two equal sized groups: critical and noncritical. Both groups received reading comprehension instruction, but the critical group got supplemental in CT skills. A specially tailored reading test was administered to measure the participants’ inferential understanding. The results indicated that the critical group outperformed the noncritical group t (58) = 3.27, p > 0.5. The implication for language teaching may be either adoption of a critical orientation to teaching, or adaptation of CT skills to fit the language class.

Index Terms: critical thinking, inferential reading comprehension, second language acquisition.

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