‘The Effect of Written Corrective Feedback on the Writing Skill: A Case of Direct vs. Indirect Error Feedback on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Letter Writing Performance’ by – Amir Marzban & Sajad Alinejad Moalem


This study was conducted to investigate the effect of direct error feedback vs. indirect error feedback on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners’ letter writing performance. For this purpose 100 learners of English at Shokouh language institute in Gorgan participated in this study. Having being homogenized by an OPT test, 40 learners were selected and they were randomly assigned into two groups, control and experimental. Then both groups sat for a pre-test, which was a letter-writing application. The purpose of this test was to measure the learners’ initial subject knowledge of letter writing ability. Then one group received treatment based on direct error feedback. However, the other group received treatment based on indirect error feedback. The treatment procedure took 10 sessions. Finally at the end of the course both groups sat for the post test of letter writing test. Then the statistical analysis was run through ANCOVA. It was explored from the study that learners’ letter writing performance improves more when they are provided with indirect error feedback. However, this study provides a significant contribution in curriculum innovation and policy with respect to the learners’ letter writing development.

Keywords: Direct error feedback, indirect error feedback, letter writing performance

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