‘A Critical Review of Jenifer Jenkins’s Lingua Franca Core in the Context of English as an International Language’ by PARESH JOSHI

Abstract

The present paper primarily endeavours to critically review the efficacy of Lingua Franca Core (LFC) by Jenifer Jenkins in the emerging contents of English as an International Language (EIL). There is hardly any consensus on norms for teaching pronunciation among the researchers. There is an increasing amount of protest against the use of Received Pronunciation (RP) as universal norm for teaching pronunciation in favour of non-native speakers (NNS) who are an English speaking majority today. The NNSs out outnumber the native speakers by a huge margin. Bearing in mind the majority of NNSs, Jenkins argues against the hegemony of the native standards for teaching pronunciation and very strongly maintains that the standardization of norms should take in to consideration NNSs. Considering the prevailing contexts of EIL, she proposes LFC as a solution which according to her is simplified version of RP and takes into account evolving contexts of English in Outer and Expanding circles. The
paper critically examines LFC as whole by evaluating proposed seven priority areas for teaching pronunciation for facilitating international intelligibility in English. The paper also examines how much it deviates from RP in favour of NNSs. Finally, the paper would try to answer whether LFC is useful to NNSs for attaining international intelligibility in English.

Index Terms: Lingua Franca Core (LFC), Inter language Talk (ILT), International Intelligibility,
Received Pronunciation (PR), Common Core, Universal Norms, Native Speaker (NS), Non-Native
Speaker (NNS)

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‘Phonological Contrastive Analysis of Consonant and Vowel Phonemes of R.P. and GIE with Special Focus on Gujarati Phonology’ by Paresh Joshi

Abstract

Present paper is an endeavor to investigate underlying differences in segmental phonology of Received Pronunciation (RP) and General Indian English (GIE) with special focus on Gujarati English Phonology (GEP). The analysis takes into consideration peculiar features of all the three phonologies i.e. RP, GIE and phonology of Gujarati English.

Although a contrastive analysis of RP and GIE brings out gross phonological peculiarities of all the Indian Speakers of English including Gujarati Speakers of English (GSE), the rationale for such a contrastive analysis is to arrive at gross segmental phonological features which are very peculiar to Gujarati Speakers of English (GSE) under the influence of Gujarati phonology with a view to devising pedagogical strategies to resolve pronunciation problems pertaining to segmental phonology there by enhancing the international intelligibility of GSE.

Key Words: Contrastive Analysis, Supra-Segmental Phonology, General Indian English (GIE), Gujarati English Phonology (GEP), Non-native speakers (NNS), Native Speakers, Guajarati Speakers of English, and Received Pronunciation (RP).

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‘Session Planning in (English Language) Teaching: A Paradigm Shift towards Three-tiered Integrated Pedagogy and Management of Teaching’ by Govind B. Dave

Abstract

Teaching, particularly, (English Language) Teaching has passed through a very critical period. Right from Policy decisions of incorporating English into various curricula to Pedagogical Issues and concerns; from various types of courses to methods of teaching; and from course content to session planning. Session Planning is considered to be an essential and important component of teaching practices. It not only makes the teaching – learning process more focused but also adds to the creativity of the teacher and the learner in the classroom. It helps the teacher decide approaches taking into consideration the requirements of the course and individual learners. Thus, in a way, it forms bedrock of effective teaching in the classroom. It helps the teacher manage his / her teaching and move ahead in the three-tiered pedagogy concerning planning, teaching and evaluation. The paper focuses upon the need and the importance of session planning with reference to Teaching in general and (English Language) Teaching in particular. It also shows how it gifts the curriculum and its pedagogy a move / shift in its paradigm from random teaching to more planned / managed and focused learner – centric teaching.

Keywords: Curriculum, Pedagogy, Management of Teaching, (English Language) Teaching, Teaching Methods, and Session Planning

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‘The Effect of Social Status on Complaint Strategies by Iranian EFL learners and English native speakers’ by Soudabeh Tabatabaei & Dr. M. Balakumar

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the type of complaint strategies employed by Iranian EFL learners and English native speakers in complaint interactions in different social status (higher, lower, equal). Thirty Iranian EFL learners and 30 English native speakers participated in the study. Discourse completion task (DCT) as an open-ended questionnaire was administered to them to elicit the required data. Then, the gathered data were analyzed according to modified taxonomy of complaint proposed by Murphy and Neu (1996) involving complaint, justification, criticism, explanation of purpose and ‎candidates’ solution: Demand / Request.  In addition, three other strategies were added to this taxonomy i.e. sarcasm, threat and apology. The results indicated that social status of interlocutor had a great influence on strategy choice by participants of two groups. There is a hope that this study can contribute to our understanding of complaint strategies and help language teachers make aware of the existing discrepancies between English native speakers and Iranian EFL learners in realization of complaint strategies.

Keywords: Speech act, complaint strategies, DCT, social status, English native speakers, Iranian EFL learners

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‘Gender Variation in Vocabulary Teaching and Learning’ by H. Renolyn Jeyanth

Abstract

Language is one of the wonderful gifts given by God to humanity. It is with the help of language that man is able to communicate and solve a number of his problems and has been able to make a lot of achievements in life. It is also important in our lives dominating our social and cognitive process. It is the fulcrum of education, functioning as the medium of communication between students and teachers and students and textbooks. In this paper, let us find whether there is any gender variation influence in the teaching and learning of the vocabulary.

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‘Role of Intercultural Approach to English Language Teaching in the Indian Context: A Theoretical Exploration’ by Namita Singhal

Abstract

This article analyzes the linguistic scenario in India, which is multilingual and multicultural. Every linguistic community in the country has its unique history and identity. Acceptability of a language countrywide is a distant possibility, as is evident from the case of Hindi and the failure of the three language formula.  In this situation, English, a foreign language, having tremendous instrumental value is firmly set to serve the purpose of the link language of the country, a situation not agreeable to the nationalistic sentiments. It raises concerns of linguistic imperialism, too. The author of the paper builds up a case wherein an intercultural approach to English language teaching is shown to have potential to cater to the linguistic needs of the country, while preserving its diverse  indigenous languages.

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‘Communicative Approach towards Teaching Of English Prepositions’ by VIPUL B. GODHANIYA

Abstract

Preposition is a very important part of speech in English. Not only there are a great number of them in English, but also they are used for a wide range of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic functions. Knowing how to use prepositions correctly in English is considered a yardstick against which one’s English level is measured.  It is difficult to learn and to teach correct usage of English prepositions. They make confusions even for native speakers also. The successful teaching of English prepositions depends upon the correct usage of them and practical or communicative approach towards them. English language and grammar have been taught through various methods, techniques, and approaches since the discipline ELT came into existence. Some of the methods are popular like direct method, audio-lingual method, silent way method, suggestopedia, and natural approach, community language learning method, total physical response method, and structural-situational approach among the language experts. But these methods haven’t played significant role in second language learning. So, experts of ELT are bound to investigate impressive techniques for teaching of second language. It would be fair to say that if there is any one umbrella approach to language teaching that has become the accepted ‘norms’ in this field, then it would have to be the Communicative Language Teaching Approach. This is also known as CLT. The present research paper aims to discuss teaching of English prepositions with the help of Communicative Language Teaching Approach. Researcher suggests some useful methods to teach English prepositions in this research paper. This paper may help teachers of English for discussing English prepositions in language classrooms.

Key terms: Communicative Approach, English Prepositions

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‘Developing English Communicative Skills of Grade Five Students from Primary Schools in Lampang through Task-Based Learning’ by JUAJAN WONGPOLGANAN, SIRIPHAN KHATKUMHAENG, PRANOM WONGMEUNRAT, BUSSARAKUM INTASUK & THANAPHAN NA CHIEANGMAI

Abstract

The purposes of this quasi-experimental research were: 1) to improve English learning and teaching in schools from the practicum school network of Lampang Rajabhat University, Lampang, Thailand; and 2) to launch the co-operative network for improving the learning and teaching of English from individuals, schools, communities and the like. The samples were 147 Grade Five students of the six primary schools in Lampang Province. Those schools were selected purposively and the students were treated as the experimental group using task-based learning (TBL) activities. The achievement tests were assigned to the students both before and after the commencement of the lessons. After the five-week teaching, the participants were assigned to answer the questionnaire on their satisfaction towards TBL and their teachers. Moreover, the university students who volunteered to teach those school children were assigned to evaluate their attitudes towards their teaching using TBL. The researchers observed the classroom atmosphere and the interaction between the teachers and the students and between the students themselves. The findings revealed that the school children’s communicative skills after the lessons were developed significantly and it can be concluded that both Grade Five students and the university students were satisfied with TBL activities and their classroom interaction.

Keywords: English for communicative skills, task-based learning (TBL), primary  school  students

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‘New Directions for Materials Development in the Third Millennium’ by MOHAMMAD KHATIB & ASGHAR AFSHARI

Abstract

If we look back at our recent past, we can identify trends which are likely to characterize the nature of future society. As we begin the new millennium, many changes in society may affect trends in educational structures and language teaching respectively. A new millennium marks a moment when it is appropriate to think about what we have done, where we are now and how we should plan for the future (Littlejohn, 1998). This paper is an attempt to provide a picture of new directions for materials development in the third millennium by identifying four major trends supposed to affect the field in the new millennium including social constructivism, postmodernism, intercultural communicative competence, and   technological advancement.

Key words: constructivism, future curriculum, postmodernism, third millennium, intercultural communicative competence

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The Review of the Article `Test-taking Strategies for a High-stakes Writing Test: An Exploratory Study of 12 Chinese EFL Learners’ by ROZANA SHAMSABADI

Abstract

This review, grew from the original article by Yun Xuand Zunmin Wu , aims to report on a qualitative research study into the test-taking strategies employed in completing two picture prompt writing tasks—Situational Writing and Interpretational Writing in the Beijing Matriculation English Test. The research reveals a variety of test-taking strategies involved in completion of the two tasks. Based on the strategies employed, the results proved the presence of similarities in having the same starts according to the first picture, having parallel narrations, applying equal effort to each picture, not missing essential information of the pictures, and adding an ending to their narration in all participants’ writings. Students strived to guess test-developers’ intent and figure out the “best” theme instead of freely expressing their own interpretations. What the results of this study reveal is that they might fail to achieve the crucial goal of measuring creative thinking .The researcher found that the original intention of Interpretational Writing had been badly distorted. The present review of this article has attempted to explore the extent to which this paper fulfils the stated aims by having a cautious look through the papers` methodology in general and participants’ choices in details.

Keywords: EFL learners, Test-taking Strategies, High-stakes Writing Test

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